In the production of various modern insulating materials are used the following methods of education they have a highly porous structure. Gassing method, based on the allocation of gas in poriziruemom material by adding to the basic raw material of special . Method of foaming is to reduce the surface tension of the liquid, usually water, with the addition thereto of surface-active substances – foam, which creates a foam that is mixed with poriziruemym material. Such a method is often called the method of expansion. Way high . The method consists in applying a large amount of water in obtaining molding compounds, of which materials are prepared, followed by evaporation of the water in the drying process, allowing the material formed pores. Method of mechanical dispersion is used in manufacture of bulk insulation materials, such as grinding or diatomite raspushke asbestos.
Usually serves as an auxiliary method with other methods of pore formation. How to create a fibrous skeleton is the main way of creating a highly porous structure in the manufacture of glass wool and mineral wool, and fiberboard. It is essential in the formation of porosity and other materials that contain in their of fiber, such as asbestos or wood. Method of swelling mineral and organic materials by heating based on increasing the volume of material due to expansion of air enclosed in the pores, or water vapor formed during evaporation of chemically bound moisture. In this way, get expanded vermiculite and perlite, as well as thermal insulation products made of natural cork when heated it in an oxygen-free environment.
Method of burnable additives used in the production of highly porous ceramics, is burning out of organic additives during the firing of these products. Way of chemical processing of carbonaceous raw materials, based on decarbonization and recrystallization him that create a high porosity materials. In addition to the method of pore formation in the quantity and nature of the porosity of the materials depend on a number of technological conditions: composition of raw materials charge, the way molding products, the conditions of hydration binders in the production of cellular concrete, the aerodynamic and thermodynamic factors in the production of artificial mineral fiber. An important task production of modern insulating materials is to stabilize, ie, securing a highly porous structure of them made one way or another. This is done mainly by drying, steaming, burning and other forms of heat treatment. By drying of highly porous structure is fixed for a number of fibrous insulation products such as fiberboard and peat insulating slabs. Of thermal treatment, mainly in autoclaves, provides highly porous structure of products from cellular concrete and materials, such as in volcanic rocks. Firing clips highly porous structure of a heat-insulating ceramic goods of diatomite and perlite masses, giving the product durability, water resistance and other mechanical properties. In addition to these most common ways heat treatment in the production of certain insulation materials used and other less common types of it. For example, in the production of cellular glass (cellular glass), the final stage of the technology is annealing.