Universal machine is a technological equipment for processing materials with a view to obtaining details of a given size and shape (with the required accuracy and surface quality). On the machines the workpiece not only metal but also of other materials, the term "universal machine" is conditional. Manufacturers of universal machines range from a variety of domestic to large foreign firms. Spindle of machine tools made according to different standards. There are many developments that are being offered to the Russian market.
For example, modular boring precision tools. It can be equipped with basic cone with any known system, ie used on the machines, both Russian and foreign production. Universal machines are classified according to different grounds, foremost of which are listed below. By type of work performed metal-working machines (according to the classification ENIMSa) are distributed in nine groups, each of which is subdivided into nine types, with a common technological characteristics and design features. For most machine tool standards, the basic (main) parameters characterizing the size workpiece or the size of the machine. The collection of numerical values of these parameters (from lowest to highest) forms the size range of machines of one type, ie similar in design, kinematics and appearance. Under the direction of the machine to understand the combined effect of its mechanisms to meet the processing cycle, and under the management system – a device or combination of devices, implementing these actions. Each universal machine has certain output parameters. These include: performance, precision, strength, rigidity, vibration resistance, resistance to thermal shocks, durability, reliability, quality, economic and energy indicators. All of them, taken together, describe the technical level of the machine.