In solving the problems of laser processing of materials almost always required to ensure the movement of a point interaction of the laser beam with the material, especially fine work, such as laser cleaning. Consider three the most common way to implement such a move: the use of the scanning system, plotter system (coordinate table) or multi-axis robot. Scanning System, as a rule, a set of two mirrors, rotating around mutually perpendicular axes. Each of these mirrors in the "zero" position rejects the laser beam by 90 degrees. After the mirrors along the beam path is focusing lens, as a rule – a flat field lens.
Rotate the mirror moves the focal spot on the object plane. Mirrors are set in motion galvanoprivodami. The advantages of this type of control systems laser include high speed movement of the points of treatment (up to 10 m / s), high positioning accuracy and repeatability (5 mm) low cost, compactness, possibility of defining a complex program processing. The disadvantage of scanning systems is the relatively small size of the field processing. This shortcoming limits the scope of scanning systems marking, cleaning and shock hardening. This lack of makes insignificant taking place restrictions on power, since high-power lasers in these applications usually are not used.
Plotter system (coordinate table) is a unit move focusing head in a fixed plane separately for the two coordinates. Functionally, this system consists of a bed, rails, motors, and actually focusing head. Delivery of laser light to focusing head is carried by a rotating mirror ("flying optics"), or fiber optics, as in modern machines, based on fiber lasers. Also common scheme "fixed beam – moving parts, "in which the above-described system xy motion moves the workpiece. Advantages: The ability to create coordinate table for any given size, the ability to use laser of any power, relatively high positioning accuracy and repeatability (5 – 100 microns), the ability to specify complex processing software, high speed (up to 10 m / min). The disadvantages, rather, to design limitations include large size and weight, as well as the high cost of the coordinate tables. Robotic systems in laser processing as a driving device using a robot, which is usually a mechanical arm with a 5 – 7 degrees of freedom. The main advantage of robots is the ability to provide any details of the relative position of the laser beam. Also, the robot provides repeatable, positioning accuracy, high speed. The specificity of robots – the complexity and the complexity of programming – limits their use of technological tasks, suggesting a large number of identical operations, as For example, laser cutting, auto body parts after forming. But in dealing with such problems the robot is indispensable. The disadvantage of robots is their high cost. When choosing a control system for laser beam solve certain technological problems to be aware of this problem the following parameters: the size of the field of processing, the dimension of the trajectories, laser power, beam travel speed required, the type of laser. In some cases it is possible to use a hybrid beam control system – for example, a robot with a scanner for laser treatment.