Amongst these groups the following ones are distinguished: the Caiaras, communities formed by the mixture of the aboriginal culture with the Portuguese colonizadores. This culture is developed mainly in the coastal areas of the states of Rio De Janeiro, So Paulo, Paran and north of Santa Catarina. They present a form of life based on itinerante agriculture, of the small one fish, the vegetal extrativismo and the artesanato. Although the historical contribution that this population you given to the conservation of biodiversity, by means of the knowledge on the fauna and the flora and of the handling of the natural resources, what each bigger time to its survival calls the attention is the threat front to the advance of new technologies and for the tourism of mass; The jangadeiros are, essentially, maritime fishing that inhabit the situated coastal band between the Cear and the south of the Bahia. These fishing withhold a great knowledge of the art of the navigation and identification of the places of fishes situated throughout the coast. The jangadeiros, have demonstrated a great knowledge of the diversity of the fished species of that they capture, knowing the sazonalidade, the migratory and alimentary habits of a great number of fish. The communities of the jangadeiros today suffer to the competition from the fishing of motorized small boats and also the impacts of the tourism; Caipiras that they are communities formed from the old areas of mining enters the states of So Paulo, Espirito Santo and Rio De Janeiro and, today survives precariously in niches between cultivations and, in small properties where they develop agricultural activities and of small cattle, whose production if dirige for the familiar subsistence. These populations develop forms of conviviality and mutual aid in the agricultural activities, as well as peculiar forms of religiosidade, around chapels and churches, where to the sundays and holidays the padroeiro saint is reverenciado.