Diabetic retinopathy – an eye disease characterized by the accumulation of layers of the macula izlischney fluid. Mikkel Svane is open to suggestions. Macular edema – is one form of retinopathy in diabetes mellitus and one of the main causes of deterioration visual functions in diabetics. The likelihood of retinopathy in diabetic patients is extremely high – People with diabetes more than 10 years, 1 / 2 of all cases at risk of macular edema. At the same time laser coagulation of the retina and is common to diabetics control glucose levels in a significant proportion of patients do not give the desired effect. Disability of patients with diabetes often occurs as a result of the appearance of macular edema and strong prolonged reduction of view. Significant risk factors for occurrence of diabetic retinopathy is of great length of diabetes and type of diabetes, patient age and associated with age and disease, physical inactivity, elevated blood glucose levels, high blood pressure and problems with lipid metabolism. Diabetic retinopathy has 3 stages: nonproliferative, and preproliferative proliferation. On the nonproliferative stage, microaneurysms occur, the various exudates and hemorrhage, there is a swelling of the retina. Then comes the second stage, when ophthalmoscopy is possible to determine vascular abnormalities in the retina – intraretinalnye microvascular abnormalities and pathological state of the veins (enlarged, twisted, there is a loop). For the second stage of diabetic retinopathy works normally, "four-two-one": disease has developed or will develop with high probability, if there are hemorrhages in four quadrants, the anomalous status of the veins in two and intraretinalnye vascular abnormalities in at least one quadrant. Proliferative stage has two types of cell proliferation – vascular and fibrous. Ophthalmoscopic examination reveals neovascularization of the retina and optic nerve hemorrhages preretinalnogo nature hemorrhage in the vitreous body, epiretinal and vitreoretinal fibrosis, retinal detachment, blood vessels on the iris and anterior chamber angle, with the recent nature. Macular edema occurs in 2 / 3 of patients with proliferative stage of diabetic retinopathy. It is important to timely diagnose macular edema. Diagnosis of macular edema is possible by various methods, which can be divided into three groups a) assessment functions retina – visometry, survey using the computer perimeter, Amsler grid, electroretinography, and 2) estimate gemoretinalnogo barrier – fluorescent angiography and vitreal , 3) assessment of the retina with the definition of thickness and abnormalities in this parameter – using biomicroscopy lenses stereofotografirovanie standard fields retina, optical coherence tomography. By the conclusion of several studies the best way diagnose macular edema is recognized optical coherence tomography, or oct. This method of diagnosis not only allows you to detect the disease, but also depending on the pathology of the chosen tactics of therapy.